Journal of Digital Technologies and Law

Advanced search

Future of the Artificial Intelligence: Object of Law or Legal Personality?

EDN: immoam

Full Text:


Objective: to reveal the problems associated with legal regulation of public relations, in which artificial intelligence systems are used, and to rationally comprehend the possibility of endowing such systems with a legal subject status, which is being discussed by legal scientists.

Methods: the methodological basis of the research are the general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, analogy, abstraction and classification. Among the legal methods primarily applied in the work are formal-legal, comparative-legal and systemic-structural methods, as well as the methods of law interpretation and legal modeling.

Results: the authors present a review of the state of artificial intelligence development and its introduction into practice by the time of the research. Legal framework in this sphere is considered; the key current concepts of endowing artificial intelligence with a legal personality (individual, collective and gradient legal personality of artificial intelligence) are reviewed. Each approach is assessed; conclusions are made as to the most preferable 

amendments in the current legislation, which ceases to correspond to the reality. The growing inconsistency is due to the accelerated development of artificial intelligence and its spreading in various sectors of economy, social sphere, and in the nearest future – in public management. All this testifies to the increased risk of a break between legal matter and the changing social reality.

Scientific novelty: scientific approaches are classified which endow artificial intelligence with a legal personality. Within each approach, the key moments are identified, the use of which will allow in the future creating legal constructs based on combinations, avoiding extremes and observing the balance between the interests of all parties. The optimal variant to define the legal status of artificial intelligence might be to include intellectual systems into a list of civil rights objects, but differentiating the legal regulation of artificial intelligence as an object of law and an “electronic agent” as a quasi subject of law. The demarcation line should be drawn depending on the functional differences between intellectual systems, while not only a robot but also a virtual intellectual system can be considered an “electronic agent”.

Practical significance: the research materials can be used when preparing proposals for making amendments and additions to the current legislation, as well as when elaborating academic course and writing tutorials on the topics related to regulation of using artificial intelligence.

About the Authors

I. A. Filipova
National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod; Samarkand State University
Russian Federation

Irina A. Filipova – Candidate of Sciences in Jurisprudence, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Labor Law and Environmental Law; Head of Central Asia research center for artificial intelligence regulation

Scopus Author ID:

Web of Science Researcher ID:

Google Scholar ID:

RSCI Author ID:

23 prospekt Gagarina, Nizhniy Novgorod 603922

15 Universitetskiy boulevard, Samarkand 140104, Republic of Uzbekistan

Competing Interests:

A. Filipova is a Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Journal; the article has been reviewed on general terms.

V. D. Koroteev
National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod
Russian Federation

Vadim D. Koroteev – 4th year student of Law Faculty

Web of Science Researcher ID:

RSCI Author ID:

23 prospekt Gagarina, Nizhniy Novgorod 603922

Competing Interests:

A. Filipova is a Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Journal; the article has been reviewed on general terms.


1. Abbott, R. (2020). The Reasonable Robot. Artificial Intelligence and the Law. Cambridge University Press.

2. Alekseev, A., Alekseeva, E., & Emelyanova, N. (2023). Artificial Personality in socio-political communication. Artificial Societies, 18(1). (In Russ.).

3. Arkhipov, V. V., & Naumov, V. B. (2017). On certain issues of theoretic grounds for development of robotics legislation: the aspects of will and legal personality. Statute, 5, 157–170. (In Russ.).

4. Ashley, K. D. (2017). Artificial Intelligence and Legal Analytics: New Tools for Law Practice in the Digital Age. Cambridge University Press.

5. Avila Negri, S. M. C. (2021). Robot as Legal Person: Electronic Personhood in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8, Art. 789327.

6. Balkin, J. M. (2015).The Path of Robotics Law. California Law Review, 6, 45–60.

7. Bertolini, A., & Episcopo, F. (2022). Robots and AI as Legal Subjects? Disentangling the Ontological and Functional Perspective. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9, Art. 842213.

8. Bryson, J. J., Diamantis, M. E., & Grant, Th. D. (2017). Of, For, and By the People: The Legal Lacuna of Synthetic Persons. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 25, 273–291.

9. Calo, R. (2015). Robotics and the Lessons of Cyberlaw. California Law Review, 103(3), 513–563.

10. Channov, S. E. (2022). Robot (Artificial Intelligence System) as a Subject (Quasi-Subject) of Law. Actual Problems of Russian Law, 17(12), 94–109. (In Russ.).

11. Chesterman, S. (2020). Artificial Intelligence and the Limits of Legal Personality. International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 69, 819–844.

12. Chopra, S., & White, L. (2004). Artificial Agents – Personhood in Law and Philosophy. In Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI’2004, including Prestigious Applicants of Intelligent Systems, PAIS 2004 (pp. 635–639). Valencia: IOS Press.

13. Dremliuga, R. I., & Dremliuga, O. A. (2019). Artificial intelligence – a legal person: the arguments for and against. Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn, 2, 120–125. (In Russ.).

14. Gellers, J. C. (2021). Rights for Robots. Artificial Intelligence, Animal and Environmental Law. London: Routledge.

15. Greenstein, S. (2022). Preserving the rule of law in the era of artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial Intelligence and Law, 30, 291–323.

16. Grin, S. N. (2018). Robots’ emancipation: elements of legal personhood in the construct of artificial intelligence. Biznes. Obshchestvo. Vlast, 1(27), 233–242. (In Russ.).

17. Hárs, A. (2022). AI and international law – Legal personality and avenues for regulation. Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies, 62(4), 320–344.

18. Karnouskos, S. (2022). Symbiosis with artificial intelligence via the prism of law, robots, and society. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 30, 93–115.

19. Kharitonova, Yu. S., Savina, V. S., & Pagnini, F. (2022). Civil liability in the development and application of artificial intelligence and robotic systems: basic approaches. Perm University Herald. Juridical sciences, 4(58), 683–708. (In Russ.).

20. Ladenkov, N. S. (2021). Models of endowing artificial intelligence with legal personality. Vestnik IKBFU. Humanities and Social Sciences, 3, 12–20. (In Russ.).

21. Laptev, V. A. (2019). Artificial Intelligence and Liability for its Work. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey Shkoly Ekonomiki, 2, 79–102. (In Russ.).

22. McCarty, L. T. (2017). Finding the Right Balance in Artificial Intelligence and Law. In Research Handbook on the Law of Artificial Intelligence (Chapter 3, pp. 55–87). Edward Elgar Publishing.

23. McNally, Ph. & Inayatullah, S. (1988). The Rights of Robots: Technology, Culture and Law in the 21st Century. Futures, 20(1), 119–136.

24. Mocanu, D. M. (2021). Gradient Legal Personhood for AI Systems – Painting Continental Legal Shapes Made to Fit Analytical Molds. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8, Art. 788179.

25. Morkhat, P. M. (2018a). Artificial intelligence unit as electronic personality. Bulletin of the Moscow State Regional University (Jurisprudence), 2, 61–73. (In Russ.).

26. Morkhat, P. M. (2018b). Legal personality of artificial intelligence unit: some civil-legal approaches. Bulletin of Kostroma State University, 3, 280–283. (In Russ.).

27. Mulgan, T. (2019). Corporate Agency and Possible Futures. Journal of Business Ethics, 154, 901–916. https://

28. Musina, K. S. (2023). Theoretical aspects of identifying legal personality of artificial intelligence: cross-national analysis of the laws of foreign countries. RUDN Journal of Law, 27(1), 135–147. (In Russ.).

29. Naumov, V. B., & Arkhipov, V. V. (2017). Draft Federal law “On amendments to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in improving the legal regulation of relations in the field of robotics”. In N. A. Sheveleva (Ed.), Law and Information: the Questions of Theory and Practice: Collection of works of international scientific and practical conference. Saint Petersburg: The Presidential Library. (In Russ.).

30. Nechkin, A. V. (2020). Constitutional and Legal Status of Artificial Intelligence in Russia: Present and Future. Lex Russica, 8, 78–85. (In Russ.).

31. Pagallo, U. (2018). Apples, oranges, robots: four misunderstandings in today’s debate on the legal status of AI systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 376(2133), Art. 20180168.

32. Petev, N. I. (2022). Existential, legal and ethical problems of artificial intelligence. Journal of Wellbeing Technologies, 2(45), 55–70. (In Russ.).

33. Ponkin, I. V., & Redkina A. I. (2018). Artificial Intelligence from the Point of View of Law. RUDN Journal of Law, 22(1), 91–109. (In Russ.).

34. Popova, A. V. (2018). New Subjects of the Information Society and the Knowledge Society: To the Question of Legal Regulation, Journal of Russian Law, 6(11), 14–24. (In Russ.).

35. Sanfilippo, Ch. (2007). Course in Roman private law: tutorial (transl. by I. I. Makhankov, D. V. Dozhdev (Ed.)). Moscow: Norma. (In Russ.).

36. Shutkin, S. I. (2020). Is legal personhood of AI possible? Works on Intellectual Property, 35(1–2), 90–137. (In Russ.).

37. Solaiman, S. M. (2017). Legal Personality of Robots, Corporations, Idols and Chimpanzees: A Quest for Legitimacy. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 25(2), 155–179.

38. Solum, L. B. (1992). Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligences. North Carolina Law Review, 70(4), 1231–1287.

39. Somenkov, S. A. (2019). Artificial intelligence: from object to subject? Courier of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University, 2(54), 75–85. (In Russ.).

40. Stiglitz, J. E. (2017). The coming great transformation. Journal of Policy Modeling, 39(4), 625–638.

41. Uzhov, F. V. (2017). Legal personality of artificial intelligence. Gaps in Russian Legislation, 3, 357–360. (In Russ.).

42. Vasilevskaya, L. Yu., Poduzova, E. B., & Tasalov, F. A. (2021). Digitalization of civil turnover: legal characteristics of “artificial intelligence” and “digital” subjects (civilistic research) (In 5 vol. Vol. 3). Moscow: Prospect. (In Russ.).

43. Vavilin, E. V. (2022). The status of artificial intelligence: from object to the subject of legal relations. Vestnik Tomskogo

44. Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta. Pravo, 45, 147–158. (In Russ.).


For citations:

Filipova I.A., Koroteev V.D. Future of the Artificial Intelligence: Object of Law or Legal Personality? Journal of Digital Technologies and Law. 2023;1(2):359–386. EDN: immoam

Views: 445

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2949-2483 (Online)